In what way is new technologies beneficial as we work to mitigate climate change?
• The long-term effects of some technological solutions may be unknown.
• The public often needs to be convinced of long-term changes to their way of life.
• Technologies that require large-scale implementation require more funding than may be available.
• Many technologies have the potential to reduce the impacts of the greenhouse effect and prevent climate change from getting any worse.
Is it possible that the carbon atoms in your body may have once made up the living tissues of another person or animal in earlier times? This is
• possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.
• impossible since carbon can’t enter a living system more than once.
• possible only if you are a cannibal.
• highly unlikely since carbon is always tied up in molecules in organisms or minerals.
Climate can best be described as
• the temperature and rainfall of a specific area over the course of a year.
• the average weather patterns in a given area over long periods of time.
• how hot or cold a location is based on its distance from the equator.
• how hot or cold a location is based on its altitude.
Which of the following act as a carbon source within the carbon cycle?
• the harvesting of fossil fuel from within the earth
• release of carbon dioxide into the air by the ocean
• respiration from humans and animals
• photosynthesis by plants
In which of the following ways has climate change impacted weather patterns in the United States?
• Average precipitation has increased by 4%; however, this has been a very regional change, with some areas seeing significant increases in rainfall and other areas seeing significant decreases in rainfall.
• Severe weather events, including droughts and flooding, have decreased in frequency.
• Average temperatures have increased up to 1.8oF; however, these changes have been very regional, with some areas seeing increasing temperatures and others seeing decreasing temperatures.
• Geological events, including volcanoes and earthquakes have increased in frequency.
Why is solar energy considered to be a better option in mitigating climate change?
• They absorb the sun’s rays, preventing them from heating up the earth.
• Solar energy is not considered to be a better option for climate change mitigation.
• They absorb greenhouse gases, preventing them from causing heat to be trapped in the earth’s atmosphere.
• It releases far less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere compared to burning fossil fuels.
Why is ocean acidification problematic for some marine life?
• It decreases the amount of carbonate in the oceans, making the creation of shells and other hard structures difficult for marine life.
• It decreases the stratification of water temperatures, so that marine organisms have smaller ranges in which to survive.
• The acidification causes metals to precipitate out of the water and deposit on the backs of aquatic organisms.
• It decreases the availability of oxygen in the water for the respiration needs of aquatic organisms.
The light reactions of photosynthesis occur within the _____ of the chloroplast and the Calvin cycle reactions occur within the _____ of the chloroplast.
• thylakoid; stroma
• stroma; thylakoid
• thylakoid; outer membrane
• stroma; outer membrane
Human society in its current form is unsustainable because
• recycling has eliminated the need for the mining of some mineral resources.
• freshwater is being effectively preserved through conservation.
• important natural resources are being consumed more quickly than they can be replenished.
• renewable energy sources are consuming land and resources more quickly than they can be replenished.
• diverting agricultural yield for feeding livestock supplies enough protein to fulfill a community’s dietary needs.
As climate change continues, the prevalence of vector-borne disease has increased. Why is this?
• As climates have warmed and winters have become less severe, the range of mosquitos and ticks has increased, bringing with them the diseases they carry.
• Diseases are more contagious in warmer weather, so as climates have warmed, vector-borne diseases spread faster.
• The bacteria and viruses that cause disease multiply more rapidly in warmer weather, so as climates have warmed, the pathogens that cause disease are more prevalent.
• As climates have changed, habitats have changed. Organisms that carry disease have been displaced from their original habitats and have found new habitats, bringing the spread of disease with them.
Hurricanes and other severe precipitation events have started becoming weaker and less intense as a result of climate change.
Which statement below best summarizes the overall purpose of the light-dependent reactions?
• The light-dependent reactions convert high-energy molecules into carbohydrates.
• The light-dependent reactions capture the energy from the sun and transfer it to high-energy molecules.
• The light-dependent reactions capture the energy from the sun and convert it to glucose.
• The light-dependent reactions use energy to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrate molecules.
Carbon sinks are reservoirs that hold large amounts of carbon. Which of the following are considered to be carbon sinks?
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• the atmosphere
• fossil fuels deep underground
Which of the following examples best describes how geoengineering may help mitigate global climate change?
• genetically engineering plants to require more water for photosynthesis to occur
• genetically engineering plants to decrease their uptake of carbon dioxide, helping to allow carbon dioxide to be sequestered in the atmosphere
• developing ways to create carbon sources out of the soil and ocean so that carbon is cycled more rapidly
• developing ways to reflect portions of solar energy before they reach the earth, preventing it from contributing to the greenhouse effect
If the downward slope of the line continues, what would be the expected sea ice volume in 2020?
• A little over 14.5 millions of square kilometers
• Less than 13 millions of square kilometers
• A little over 13.5 millions of square kilometers
• 15.5 millions of square kilometers
As global temperatures increase, which of the following scenarios is most likely to happen?
• Temperatures and humidity decrease.
• Sea surface temperatures and ocean heat content decrease.
• Glaciers and snow coverage decrease.
• Extreme weather events decrease.
Which of the following describes an example of how ocean acidification impacts aquatic communities?
• Plankton cannot survive in overly acidic waters, so the shellfish that depend on their presence begin to die off as well, causing a chain reaction in the community.
• Shellfish cannot reproduce in acidic waters, meaning their population sizes have decreased, negatively impacting others in the community that depend on their presence.
• Shellfish over-calcify their shells, meaning those organisms that depend on them for food must find other food sources.
• Shellfish cannot calcify their shells, meaning they are at an increased risk of predation, negatively impacting others in the community that depend on their presence.
A carbon atom can form up to three single covalent bonds with other atoms.
Because fossil fuels are the remains of once living organisms, they contain reservoirs of _____ that are released into the atmosphere when they are burned.
The greenhouse effect
• is caused by gases such as carbon dioxide trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere.
• is due to gases forming a barrier around the earth and insulating the earth from the sun’s rays.
• will lead to decreased sea levels.
• decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.
• increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.
How do invasive species impact ecosystems?
• They occupy niches that other organisms traditionally occupy.
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• They outcompete with other organisms for limited resources
• They are more capable of adapting to rapidly changing climates.
In which of the following ways are coral reefs impacted from climate change?
• Water oxygen levels are decreasing, preventing coral from being able to survive.
• Invasive species are making their way into coral reef ecosystems, displacing existing populations.
• Cooling ocean temperatures are preventing the growth of new coral reefs.
• Coral reefs are dying as oceans become more basic.
Which of the following is the most likely cause for the sudden sharp increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels?
• normal fluctuations in the natural levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
• respiration from the earth’s many living organisms
• natural events, including fires and volcanic activity
• human activities, including the use of fossil fuels, changes in agricultural practices, and deforestation
Which of the following sources of alternative energy involves using uranium or other materials to split the nucleus of an atom?
• nuclear energy
• hydroelectric energy
• wind turbines
• geothermal energy
How does climate change affect earth’s oceans?
• The pH level of the ocean will shift to a more acidic environment, leading to stress and the possible extinction of many species of shellfish and corals.
• Excess carbon in the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean, which directly increases ocean temperature.
• As levels of carbon in the atmosphere increase, the amount of carbon in the ocean decreases proportionately.
• The pH level of the ocean will shift to a more basic environment, leading to a decrease in overall productivity.
How do greenhouse gases cause climate warming?
• Greenhouse gases block solar energy from entering the lower level of the atmosphere.
• Greenhouse gases absorb solar energy and re-emit it into space before it can reach the earth’s surface.
• Solar energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere and re-emitted toward the earth’s surface as heat, causing the climate to warm.
• Infrared energy from space is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere, which then re-emit the heat toward the surface of the earth, causing the climate to warm.
• Greenhouse gases prevent radiation of infrared energy back into space, trapping the heat near the earth’s surface and causing the climate to warm.
Which of the following describes a disadvantage of nuclear energy, especially compared to other alternative energy sources?
• Nuclear energy releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
• Nuclear energy does not actually produce much energy.
• Nuclear energy is not always safe because of the radioactivity involved.
• Nuclear energy is not feasible on a large scale and tends to be more efficient for powering individual homes.
Which of the following is an example of an alternative energy that uses renewable resources?
• burning oil
• burning petroleum
• geothermal energy
• burning coal
Which of the following is true regarding the benefits of wind energy?
• tend to be extremely cost-efficient and inexpensive to manufacture
• considered to be nonpolluting
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• considered to be a nonrenewable resource
Which of the following are greenhouse gases?
• nitrogen and carbon dioxide
• carbon dioxide and oxygen
• oxygen and nitrogen
• oxygen and methane
• methane and carbon dioxide
• littoral zone
• lentic system
• freshwater pond
Over the past several decades, the overall trend for earth’s temperatures has been
• cyclical periods of warming and cooling, known as global climate change.
• decreases in overall global temperatures at an accelerating rate, a phenomenon known as global cooling.
• a gentle trend towards colder winters and hotter summers, which averages out to be very little overall global temperature changes.
• increases in overall global temperatures at an accelerating rate, a phenomenon known as global warming.
A product of photosynthesis, _____ is a carbon-based molecule that is the chief source of energy for most organisms.
• All of the answer choices are correct.
What is the main difference in the formation of coal vs. the formation of natural gas and oil?
• Coal formed mainly from deposits of plants and animals living in oceans and natural gas and oil formed mainly from the remains of plants and animals in swampy anoxic environments.
• Natural gas and oil require intense heat and pressure to form and coal only requires an anoxic environment.
• Coal takes several million years to form and natural gas and oil take much less time, roughly several thousand years.
• Natural gas and oil formed mainly from deposits of plants and animals living in oceans and coal formed mainly from the remains of plants and animals in swampy anoxic environments.
Which of the following groups is suspected of causing climate change?
• erosion, deforestation, pollution, and desertification
• overfishing and hydropower usage
• fossil fuel and hydropower usage
• fossil fuel usage, deforestation, and agriculture
• ocean acidification and desertification
A biome characterized by cold temperatures, little precipitation, and ground that is frozen for the majority of the year is called the _____.
• temperate deciduous forest
Desertification is an example of a biome level change that is associated with climate change. Which of the following is associated with desertification?
• decreases in temperature
• associated with the conversion of deserts to grasslands
• associated with poor agricultural practices, including the overgrazing of cattle
• increases in precipitation
Agricultural crops are being genetically engineered to be more tolerant of climate change. Which of the following describes a change that would help crops be more tolerant of climate change?
• engineer crops to withstand extremely hot temperatures
• engineer crops that require extra water
• engineer crops that are less nutritious
• engineer crops to be intolerant of colder temperature ranges
According to this figure, arctic sea ice is _____ on average.
• cycling back and forth in volume
• remaining consistent
• decreasing in volume
• increasing in volume
Which of the following statements is true regarding the wavelengths of light used in photosynthesis?
• The smaller the wavelength of light, the more energy associated with it. However, the pigments in plants can only absorb light within specific ranges of wavelengths, some smaller and some larger.
• The smaller the wavelength of light, the more energy associated with it, so plants only use the lowest wavelengths of light in order to be most efficient at photosynthesis.
• The larger the wavelength of light, the more energy associated with it, so plants use only the highest wavelengths of light in order to be most efficient at photosynthesis.
• The pigments in plants can absorb all wavelengths of light and do so for maximum photosynthetic efficiency.
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