Angiogenesis contributes to carcinogenesis because it
• causes apoptosis in tumor cells.
• allows tumor cells to spread to other parts of the body.
• causes additional mutations to occur in tumor cells.
• causes blood vessels to grow into the tumor.
• allows tumor cells to invade underlying tissues.
Rebecca found out that she has a mass of dividing cells called a tumor in her ovaries. She has had tests and is returning to the doctor. Which of the following would be the best news that Rebecca could receive from her doctor?
• The tumor has metastasized and invaded neighboring tissue.
• The cells are cancerous and are in situ.
• It is a benign tumor.
• It is a malignant tumor.
• It is malignant ovarian cancer.
As wavelength increases, the associated energy
• remains the same.
There are three major parts within each DNA nucleotide. Of these three, which is responsible for the storage of genetic information?
• its phosphate bonds
• its deoxyribose sugar
• its four nitrogen bases
• its ribose sugar
Calcium moves into bones as new bone cells are formed, and moves out of bones as special cells break the bones down. Hormones that are produced by the thyroid and parathyroid glands help regulate this process. As bone cancer causes bones to break down, what might be observed in a patient’s body chemistry?
• Calcium would be released into the blood stream, causing high calcium levels.
• Calcium would be absorbed into the bones, causing low blood calcium levels.
• Calcium levels would always remain constant, as the thyroid and parathyroid glands would compensate.
Which of the following statements best describes the benefits of radiation therapy?
• All of the choices are correct.
• Radiation therapy can be directed against specific cells and tissues within the body.
• Radiation therapy may shrink tumors, making them easier to remove surgically.
• Radiation damages the DNA within cancer cells, either slowing down cell division or stopping it altogether.
• Radiation therapy can be combined with other therapies, including chemotherapy.
During which stage of the cell cycle do the chromosomes duplicate?
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the cell cycle? Assume the cell has just completed cell division.
Some of the drugs used in chemotherapy work by
• producing kinases.
• causing cells to divide quickly.
• preventing spindle formation.
• inhibiting cytokinesis.
• increasing telomeres.
Which of the following statements is true regarding stage 3 cancers?
• The tumor has spread to distant organs.
• The tumor is smaller than 2 cm and has not been detected in any lymph nodes.
• Stage 3 cancers are defined solely based on the size of the tumor.
• The cancer has become invasive and affects more of the surrounding tissue, causing swelling, inflammation, or ulcers.
Which of the following is true of the chromosomes in a cell undergoing mitosis?
• They are loosely coiled.
• They are found within the cytoplasm.
• They are available for RNA synthesis.
• They are present in the haploid number.
• They have histones bound to them.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events for an altered protein that is secreted from the cell?
• smooth endoplasmic reticulum – plasma membrane – Golgi apparatus – ribosome
• rough endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus – plasma membrane
• Golgi apparatus – smooth endoplasmic reticulum – plasma membrane
• Golgi apparatus – ribosome – plasma membrane
• nucleus – smooth endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi apparatus
Cancer can originate in any area of the body. However, death rates are often highest for those cancers involving organs within the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. This is most likely because
• there are no treatment options for these types of cancer.
• these organs are all involved in processing food, which is vital to our survival.
• these organs are larger and therefore harder to treat.
• these organs play vital roles in maintaining homeostasis.
Cancer occurs when
• both uncontrolled cell division and stimulation of apoptosis occurs.
• cells are unable to divide because of a mutation.
• faulty spindle fibers are unable to pull chromatids apart.
• apoptosis occurs.
• the regulation of the cell cycle is lost and uncontrolled cell division occurs.
Sarah has thyroid cancer. As part of her treatment, she is given an injection of radioactive iodine (I-131) that will be absorbed by her thyroid, helping target those cells. This is an example of
• interstitial brachytherapy.
• low-dose internal radiation.
• systemic radiation therapy.
• external radiation therapy.
Joan and her doctor notice a suspicious lump in her breast. Joan also has a family history of breast cancer. Which of the following is not a likely next step as they work to determine the cause of the lump?
• genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 gene
• taking a biopsy of the lump to look for the presence of cancer cells
• performing a mastectomy to remove all breast tissue in that breast
• performing a diagnostic mammogram
Blood tests can provide information on blood chemistry in order to determine if the organs of the body are functioning correctly. Which of the following test results would be least likely to cause the suspicion of cancer?
• a drastic increase in calcium levels in the body
• elevated levels of CA 125 protein
• elevated liver enzyme levels
• negative findings of CA 15.3 (none is present in the blood)
• presence of specific cancer antibodies
If tumor cells have a faulty, nonfunctional proteinase, they will be unable to undergo which of the following processes?
Within a negative feedback loop,
• the sensor sends data to the control center.
• the stimulus sends data to the control center.
• the sensor causes an effector to return conditions to normal.
• the effector causes a response.
• the control center detects a change in the internal environment.
Growth factors work as signalling molecules. When they bind to receptors on target cells, they function to
• inactivate proto-oncogenes, stimulating cell division.
• inactivate proto-oncogenes, halting cell division.
• activate proto-oncogenes, halting cell division.
• activate proto-oncogenes, stimulating cell division.
Immunotherapy works on the basis of
• using radiation to destroy the DNA of cancerous cells, preventing them from further cell division.
• helping the body to distinguish “self” cells from “non-self” cells and to destroy only the “nonself” cells.
• using chemicals to target cancerous cells, preventing them from further cell division.
• helping the body to distinguish “self” cells from “nonself” cells and to destroy only the “self” cells.
• using small packets of radioactive materials that are injected into the bloodstream to remove cancerous cells in the bloodstream.
If cancer is discovered at an early stage, surgical removal is most likely used as a first means of treatment before chemotherapy. This is because chemotherapy agents
• can cause negative side effects including nausea, and hair loss.
• are not specific and can target all cells of the body.
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• can cause damage to other organs and tissues.
Which of the following statements best describes how alkylating agents work as chemotherapy?
• Alkylating agents have no long term risks or side effects, making them useful tools for treating cancer.
• Alkylating agents work to prevent the cell from replicating its genetic material, preventing cell division.
• Alkylating agents insert themselves into the DNA of healthy cells, resulting in an increase in mitosis for healthy cells. These healthy cells can then help fight cancerous cells.
• Alkylating agents are not very precise and can insert into the DNA of any cell.
The following list describes ways that CRISPR may be used to treat cancer. Which of the following describes immunotherapy instead of CRISPR therapy?
• Mutated proto-oncogenes may have their previous function restored, allowing normal regulation of cell division.
• Cytotoxic T cells may be stimulated, creating an immune response against cancer cells and shrinking tumors.
• Nucleotides within DNA may be removed, inactivating genes that are responsible for some types of cancer.
• Mutated tumor-suppressor genes may have their previous function restored, allowing normal regulation of cell division.
• Cancer causing mutations within cells may be corrected, preventing cancer from occurring.
Which of the following is true concerning the checkpoints in the cell cycle?
• Mitosis stops if chromosomes are not properly aligned.
• Mitosis will still occur if the DNA is damaged or not replicated.
• Most cells that undergo mitosis cannot proceed through all the cell cycle checkpoints and end up undergoing apoptosis.
• The purpose of the cell cycle checkpoints is to ensure that mitosis results in haploid daughter cells.
• The G1 checkpoint is located at the tail end of the S phase of interphase.
Robert has a tumor on his brain that requires radiation. Before his treatment, doctors perform a CT scan so they can know where to target the beam of radiation. Robert’s head is shaved in that area and he receives a tiny circle tattoo to allow the radiation technicians to pinpoint the beam of radiation. What type of therapy is Robert receiving?
• interstitial brachytherapy
• external radiation therapy
• low-dose internal radiation therapy
• high-dose internal radiation therapy
CRISPR systems have been used in cancer treatments to
• inactivate faulty genes that are responsible for the cell cycle, causing them to slow down or stop cell division.
• activate genes that are responsible for the cell cycle, causing them to speed up cell division to replace cells lost to other cancer treatments.
• deliver radiation to individual cells within large, dense tumors.
• deliver packets of chemicals to tumors via genetically engineered red blood cells.
Which of the following describes a way that breast cancer influences the physiology of the body?
• Tumor growth that disrupts the ducts leading to the nipples may result in discharge leaking from the breasts.
• All of these choices are correct.
• Breast cancer may cause fatigue and a lack of energy.
• The lymph nodes underneath the arms may become swollen and painful to touch, indicating the cancer has invaded them.
• Metastasis to the bones of the body can cause bone pain and easy fracturing.
• Lumps may be found in breast tissue as tumors form and grow.
Alkylating agents work to prevent the cell from replicating its genetic material, thus preventing cell division. At which checkpoint would the cell most likely stop?
• S checkpoint
• G1 checkpoint
• M checkpoint
• G2 checkpoint
True or False: Once someone has been diagnosed with stage 4 cancer, there are no further treatment options that may help.
A woman inherits a mutant BRCA1 allele from her mother. She has an increased risk of developing breast cancer because
• the normal BRCA1 allele is more likely to mutate than in an individual without a mutant BRCA1 allele.
• a mutation in her normal BRCA1 allele may lead to cancer, whereas a normal individual would have to acquire two mutations (one in each allele) to develop cancer.
• every cell in the woman’s body has a copy of the mutant BRCA1 allele.
• she still has one normal allele of the BRCA1 gene that can make up for the loss of function in the mutant allele.
• some of the cells in her body are already cancerous, meaning that no further mutations are needed for a tumor to form.
Cells grown in a petri dish tend to divide until they form a thin layer covering the bottom of the dish. If cells are removed from the middle of the dish, the cells bordering the open space will begin dividing until they have filled the empty space. What does this experiment show?
• All of the answer choices are correct.
• The controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off.
• Cell division can be regulated by factors outside of the cell.
• Cells continue to grow as long as there is adequate space.
• When cells come into contact with other cells, they stop growing.
All of the following statements describe methods to scan the body for cancer except for one. Select the method that is mismatched.
• Screening mammograms are routine X-rays of breast tissue for anyone over the age of 40 or those with a previous history of breast cancer.
• Diagnostic mammograms are detailed scans that look at specific areas of the breast, often after a suspicious lump is found.
• Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans function to examine how cells of the body function. Sugars with a radioactive tracer are introduced to the body. Active cells take up more of the sugar and are therefore more visible on the scan.
• Computerized tomography (CT) scans use radio waves and magnets to obtain a detailed picture of organs within the body.
During the process of immunotherapy, cells are removed and genetically engineered with genes against tumors. This means that white blood cells will now
• target all cells of the body for destruction.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, stimulating cytotoxic T cells to attack tumor cells.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, meaning they will search and destroy any tumor cells.
• display tumor antigens on their cell surface, which will then be released near tumors. The antigens destroy the tumors.
• stimulate surrounding cells to slow down or stop cell division, shrinking tumors.
Which type of genes, when abnormally activated so that protein is always present and active, can result in cancer?
• tumor suppressor genes
• initiator caspase genes
• executioner caspase genes
• DNA repair protein genes
Of the following cancer stages, which one has the greatest potential for a positive outcome, including successful remission?
• stage 1B breast cancer
• stage 1A breast cancer
• stage 3C breast cancer
• stage 4 breast cancer
• stage 2B breast cancer
Which of the following is a characteristic of cancer cells?
• Cells that spend 90% of their lifetime in interphase.
• Cells undergo highly regulated cell division.
• Cells exhibit contact inhibition.
• Cells are able to differentiate and specialize.
• Cells with abnormal nuclei.
The following statements describe how cancer is staged. Which of the statements is true?
• Most cancers are grouped into stages 1-4; however, treatment options are only available for stages 1-3.
• Cancer is described based on the size of the tumor, if the tumor has invaded nearby tissues, if it has spread to lymph nodes, and if it has moved to other organs of the body.
• Once a cancer reaches each stage, it cannot be reversed, as tumors only grow in size, even with aggressive treatments.
• Cancer is described by ten stages, each with their own subdivisions. The lower the stage, the worse the prognosis.
If blood sugar levels drop below normal, the digestive system is primarily responsible for returning levels to normal.
This is an example of
Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as
• proteinase enzymes making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues.
• metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.
• these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer.
• growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign.
• spreading of cancer by angiogenesis.
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