When you complained to a friend from India about India’s high population she responded by suggesting you consider that the United States is also overpopulated. What do you think she meant?
- The United States has a very high immigration rate.
- The United States has a very high birth rate compared to other developed countries and to China.
- The United States, which is 5% of the world’s population, consumes 25% of the world’s resources.
- The density of urban metropolitan centers like New York shows that the United States is also overpopulated.
The interdisciplinary study of humanity’s relationship with other organisms and the non-living physical environment is termed:
- political science
- environmental science
What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
I. State the problem
II. Analyze and interpret the data
III. Develop a hypothesis
IV. Share the results with other scientists
V. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis
- I – II – III – IV – V
- III – I – V – II – IV
- I – III – V – II – IV
- V – IV– III – II – I
A state agency has contacted you to do a scientific assessment of kudzu in a nature preserve in southern Georgia. They are concerned about the effects of the non-native invasive vine on a small rare plant that grows on the forest floor in the preserve, but which is found nowhere else in the state. Kudzu is only growing in the east side of the preserve because it hasn’t yet had time to invade further. In order to assess the effects of kudzu on the rare plant, you set up the following experiment:
Site 1. On the east side of the park with the kudzu, you set up ten 1m × 1m plots on the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of individuals of the rare plant.
Site 2. On the west side of the park without the kudzu, you set up ten 1m × 1m plots of the forest floor. In each plot you count the number of individuals of the rare plant.
Which of the following represents the hypothesis that you are testing with this experiment?
- Kudzu will eventually grow on the west side of the park.
- Kudzu will kill off the trees in the preserve by strangling them.
- Kudzu should be removed from the preserve because it is killing the rare plant.
- Kudzu is negatively affecting populations of the rare plant in the preserve.
Which of the following describes the relationship among population growth, consumption of natural resources, and environmental degradation?
- When individual demands on natural resources are far greater than the requirements for survival, people in affluent nations deplete resources and degrade the global environment through increased consumption of nonessential items to satisfy their desires.
- Rapid population growth does not overwhelm and deplete a country’s soils, forests, and other natural resources when the amount of resources essential to an individual’s survival is small.
- Rate of resource consumption affects the environment far less that the explosion in population.
- There is no relationship between population growth, consumption of natural resources, and environmental degradation.
Which of the following ecological footprints is the largest?
- Ecological footprint of a single individual in U.S.
- Ecological footprint of a single individuals in France
- Ecological footprint of a single individuals in India
- Ecological footprint of 6 individuals in India
In order to estimate human impact on the environment we can
- multiply the number of people times affluence per person times resources used and wastes produced (I = P × A × T).
- multiply resource depletion times number of years divided by number of people (I = R × Y ÷ P).
- multiply birth rate times consumption patterns divided by available resources (I= B × C ÷ R).
- divide number of people by resources needed and wastes produced (I = P ÷ T).
In order for a country to progress from a less developed country (LDC) to a moderately developed country (MDC), the country would have to:
- increase rate of population growth.
- move from industry to agricultural economy base.
- raise the per-capita income.
- increase their unskilled labor force.
What is carrying capacity?
- The maximum population in sustained development projects.
- The maximum population that can be sustained by a given environment.
- The average number of organisms living in a given environment.
- The minimum population surviving in the world as a whole.
Why is the deep ecology worldview impractical?
- It is immoral to ask people to lower their standards of living.
- Everyone would need to become a vegetarian.
- It is clearly not sustainable since it gives rights to animals.
- Human population size would have to decline drastically for it to work.
If economic decisions are to be sustainable they will have to consider which of the following?
- environmental costs
- societal costs
- political costs
- environmental and societal costs must both be considered
In 1987 the U.N World Commission on Environment and Development presented a report on sustainable development called?
- Tragedy of the Commons
- Lifeboat Principle
- Our Common Future
- Silent Springs
What is a potential shortcoming in achieving environmental justice?
- It is more expensive to clean-up hazardous waste in low-income communities because of the lack of technical skill in these communities.
- Residents of low-income and minority communities have less involvement in the political process and may not even be aware of their exposure to increased levels of pollutants.
- Minority communities tend to get more cooperation from government agencies that can help them.
- Too many programs exist to serve the environmental justice needs of low-income and minority communities and these are often in competition with each other making it hard to accomplish the goals.
What is a serious shortcoming of the Western worldview to attaining environmental sustainability?
- It promotes an unlimited consumption of goods and services
- A belief in the rights of individuals
- The use of natural resources
- A disregard of humans
What is meant by food insecurity?
- The potential decline in agricultural productivity due to reduced soil fertility as a result of multi-cropping.
- The condition in which people live with chronic hunger and malnutrition likely due to poverty.
- The increased pressures on food production as a result of increases in global population.
- The potential decline in agricultural productivity due to conservation tillage.
What rights does environmental justice seek to provide?
- Adequate protection from environmental hazards.
- Adequate wealth to live in clean neighborhoods.
- The right to follow western worldview ideas.
- Ability to live the deep ecology lifestyle.
In the field of economics, the additional cost associated with one more unit of something is called a(n)
- marginal cost.
- external cost.
- direct cost.
- fringe cost.
The graph below represents the cost-benefit diagram for identifying the optimum amount of pollution. The intersection of the two lines indicates
- cost of manufacturing a product if pollution were not considered.
- maximum amount of pollution produced in a given process.
- optimum amount of pollution that is economically desired.
- point where no measurable pollution is produced.
What type of pollution control strategy does the Clean Air Act mainly depend on?
- command-and-control regulation.
- incentive-based regulation.
- relative control regulation.
- environmental impact statements.
Which of the following would environmental economists consider natural capital?
- Water purification by a cattail marsh.
- A water treatment facility.
- Increased agriculture made possible by irrigation.
- A severe hurricane like Katrina.
Whose name is associated with the concept of the land ethic and in which book did he make this argument?
- George Perkins Marsh in Man and Nature
- Henry David Thoreau in Walden
- John Muir in The Yosemite
- Aldo Leopold in Sand County Almanac
Which of the following was probably the MOST significant event in 1999 to impact the environment?
- The Kyoto Protocol was signed by the United States.
- The Exxon Valdez created the world’s largest oil spill.
- World human population reached 6 billion individuals.
- The first Earth Day celebration was held.
The legislation that authorizes the president of the United States to set aside sites that have scientific, historic, or pre-historic importance is the:
- Forest Reserve Act of 1891
- Antiquities Act of 1906
- National Environmental Policy Act of 1970
- Wilderness Act of 1964
All of the following endangered species have recovered enough to be removed from the endangered species list except:
- American alligator
- California gray whale
- Bald eagle
Who among the following would most likely believe that natural resources should be used for the greatest good for the most people for the longest time?
- John James Audubon
- Rachel Carson
- George Perkins Marsh
- Gifford Pinchot
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