In the figure below – what is the correct order of the layers of the atmosphere starting with the layer closest to the Earth’s surface and moving away?
- They are the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and troposphere.
- They are the thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere.
- They are the mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, and thermosphere.
- They are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.
Look at the different emission levels in the bar graph below. What BEST accounts for these differences in emissions?
- The Clean Air Act of 1970 along with the updates and amendments of 1977 and 1990.
- The use of electrostatic precipitators in coal burning power plants.
- The development of “superclean” cars that do not emit any nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.
- The use of lead free and cleaner-burning gasoline.
What has been the major success of the Clean Air Act?
- Higher fuel efficiencies in cars and power plants.
- An increased focus on alternative sustainable energy sources.
- Significant decreases in emissions of nitrogen oxides.
- Significantly less air pollution.
The relationship between the Earth’s atmosphere and the biosphere includes all of the following EXCEPT:
- Organisms both depend on the atmosphere for existence and also maintain and modify its composition – for example, a balance between oxygen-producing photosynthesis and oxygen-using cellular respiration maintains the current level of atmospheric oxygen.
- Atmospheric greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat reradiated from Earth’s surface keeping the lower atmosphere within the range of temperatures that support life.
- The atmosphere protects the Earth’s surface from UV radiation and X-rays making life as we know possible.
- Life on Earth flourishes due to the stable and unchanging nature of the atmosphere.
Nitrogen oxides contribute to which of the following pollution problems?
- Acid deposition
- Corroding metal
- Photochemical smog
- Global warming
- All of the above
Part of the reason air quality was so poor in Chattanooga, Tennessee in the 1960s was that
- there was a much higher concentration of cars than in other cities.
- the city is surrounded by mountains that kept pollutants from dispersing.
- the city is in close proximity to coal mining operations.
- there was a greater amount of pollutants due to the city’s chemical and oil refineries.
Urban heat islands affect local air current and weather conditions including:
1. increased number of thunderstorms over cities in summer months
2. lingering dust domes over cities
3. stronger natural disasters such as earthquakes and hurricanes
- 1 only
- 2 only
- 3 only
- Both 1 and 2
Besides temperature records, evidence that points to an increase in global temperatures includes:
- rise in sea levels
- retreating of the world’s glaciers
- in the northern hemisphere, spring now arrives a little early and autumn now starts a little late
- all of these choices
Which group of air pollutants tends to cool the atmosphere because they reflect more sunlight back to space thus reducing incoming solar radiation?
- ozone enhancers.
- nitrous oxides.
- atmospheric aerosols.
The computer models below show acidity of ocean waters in 1995 and 2100. What can be interpreted from the models about ocean acidification?
1. Plant and animals in the Arctic and Antarctic are likely to be the first and also the most affected by ocean acidification.
2. Since coral reefs are susceptible to acid bleaching, if water acidity around the equator increases as projected then coral reefs will be affected.
- Both 1 and 2 can be interpreted from the models.
- There is not sufficient information in these models for them to be interpreted.
What type of cancer is expected to increase due to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere?
What is a rain shadow?
- The silhouette of mountains as the sun passes from east to west.
- The shade on the ground produced by clouds that threaten rain.
- The dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing wind.
- The lessening of a chance of precipitation on any given day due to dry air at equator.
What can be interpreted from the following graph?
1. The graph shows that the Earth’s surface temperatures do naturally fluctuate.
2. The graph shows that there has been a warming trend in the last several decades.
- 1 only
- 2 only
- 1 & 2
- None of these choices
Why is water sometimes treated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation?
- To improve its color.
- To improve its taste.
- To remove sediment.
- To kill disease-causing agents.
An area of land that is drained by a single river is called a/an:
- flood plain.
- drainage basin.
Areas of land covered with water for at least part of the year are called:
- a pond
- a wetland
- an aquifer
Which of the following associations correctly pairs the current law with its goal controlling water pollution?
- Clean Water Act (1987) – sets uniform federal standards for public drinking water supplies.
- Clean Water Act (1977) – sets the maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged from a sewage treatment plant, factory, or other point source.
- Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) – sets the amount of tax to charge polluters to pay for the cleanup of drinking water.
- Safe Water Drinking Act (1996) – regulates underground injection of wastes such that groundwater is protected.
What is gray water?
- Water used in industrial processing that is cleaned and used for irrigation.
- Leftover irrigation water that is collected and recycled.
- Water that has already been used in sinks, showers, washing machines, and dishwashers.
- Water contaminated by salt from saltwater intrusion that is used for industry.
What is the MOST serious water related issue for people in developing countries?
- Insufficient access to clean water to meet basic drinking and household needs.
- Salinization from too much irrigation.
- High municipal consumption and waste of water.
- Eutrophication of lakes.
Which of the following is an example of composting?
- creating mulch from yard wastes and food scraps
- using animal dung as a fuel source
- recycling steel to replace dependence on iron ore
- purchasing products that have less packaging
- using less toxic materials to build products
A group of 209 industrial chemicals composed of C, H, and Cl manufactured for cooling fluids, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, inks, and pesticide extenders are known as
- petroleum oils.
- inorganic solvents.
- heavy metals.
- polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Today’s solid waste contains more ___ than in the past, whereas the amounts of glass and steel have declined.
- paper and plastics
- food wastes
- yard wastes
- copper and aluminum
- rubber and wood
What is the Superfund National Priorities List?
- the federal inventory of green chemistry locations
- the existing hazardous waste sites that pose the greatest threat to public health
- federally approved locations for the long-term storage of toxic chemicals
- current policy on how to handle chemical accidents
- a list of bodies of water in the U.S. that have not been polluted
What best explains the process that is illustrated below?
- yard wastes are being mixed with crushed glass to make glassphalt
- rubber and plastics are being prepared for incineration
- food scraps and yard wastes are converted into compost or mulch
- seeds are put into the drum to premix with soil for ease of distribution
- noncombustible wastes are being removed by hand prior to incineration
Integrated waste management refers to
- dilution and dispersal of chemicals.
- use of federal lands for hazardous waste disposal.
- a combination of source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting. Landfills and incineration.
- uniting municipal and nonmunicipal waste management programs.
- using incineration as a single technique for waste disposal.
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