Which of the following series is organized in successive steps according to the levels of organization used by ecologists?
- population -> ecosystem -> community
- species -> community -> biosphere
- species -> ecosystem -> population
- population -> community -> ecosystem
How can humans interfere with the phosphorus cycle?
- by burning natural gas.
- by mining for fertilizers.
- emissions from automobile exhaust.
- increasing global warming.
What is nitrogen fixation?
- the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form ammonia (NH3).
- preplanned setting of atmospheric levels of nitrogen at 78%.
- stabilizing elemental nitrogen into a gaseous two-atom molecule (N2).
- the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to gaseous nitrogen.
What is each level or “link” in a food chain or a food web called?
- a trophic level.
- a consumer.
- an energy flow unit.
- a producer.
Which of the following is an example of a biotic component of an ecosystem?
- the climate
- a community
- synthetic pesticides
What do we call an area of land that runoff drains into?
All of the following traits are characteristic of the adaptations of prey EXCEPT:
- producing toxins.
- having the appearance of twigs or leaves.
- warning coloration.
- all of the above are characteristic prey adaptations.
Which of the following is not a source of carbon for the carbon cycle?
- shells of marine organisms
Which of the following biomes has the HIGHEST biodiversity?
- boreal forest
- temperate grassland
- temperate rain forest
- tropical rain forest
Which biome is mismatched with the statement that follows it?
- Tropical rain forest: plants grow in layers — canopy, understory
- Tundra: a layer of permafrost
- Boreal forest: well suited for agriculture because of short growing season and mineral-poor soil
- Chaparrals have many plants that are fire-adapted and grow best following a fire.
Which the following statements typifies tropical rain forests?
- They are usually composed of at least ten distinct layers, or stories, of vegetation.
- They are found in areas with high accumulations of organic material in the soil.
- They occur in areas with ancient, highly weathered soil.
- They are known for being only moderately productive.
What are the three main ecological categories of organisms found in aquatic ecosystems?
- plankton, nekton, fish
- plankton, benthos, littoral
- plankton, nekton, benthos
- benthos, mangal, littoral
The biomes that commonly have fire-adapted species and are known for supporting herds of grazing animals are:
- temperate grassland and temperate deciduous forest.
- temperate grassland and savanna.
- chaparral and boreal forest.
- boreal forest and temperate deciduous forest.
The mechanism of natural selection involves all of the following EXCEPT:
- overproduction within a species.
- limits on population growth.
- genetic variation.
- a stable community structure.
Which of the following is NOT important in determining the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes?
- Light penetration
- Mineral nutrient concentrations
Which of the following BEST describes the kind of ecosystem shown here?
3 Freshwater wetland
- 1 only
- 2 only
- 3 only
- 4 only
Correctly order the following from wettest to driest regions.
- tall grass prairie, temperate desert, short grass prairie
- short grass prairie, tall grass prairie, temperate desert
- temperate desert, short grass prairie, tall grass prairie
- tall grass prairie, short grass prairie, temperate desert
Which of the following statements about the graph shown is TRUE?
- Only Nigeria’s population growth rate is increasing.
- China’s and Brasil’s fertility rate is below replacement level fertility.
- Only Egypt’s fertility rate is above replacement level fertility.
- Mexico and Brazil are both below replacement level fertility.
Which factors eventually cause birth rates to decline during a demographic transition?
- Birth rates decline due to improved health care and modern medicines.
- Birth rates decline due to increased education of women.
- Birth rates decline due to increased contraceptive use.
- All of these choices ultimately contribute to declining birth rates.
The total fertility rate is the number of children born:
- to the average woman per year.
- to the average woman during her lifetime.
- in the world during a single year.
- in a population during a single year.
What are the 3 most populated countries?
- China, India, Russia
- China, India, United States
- China, Bangladesh, India
- Pakistan, Indonesia, Japan
What does the graph below indicate?
- The paramecium are dispersing to other habitats
- The environmental resistance is declining
- The population is approaching carrying capacity
- The population has reached its biotic potential
Which of the following statements about human population growth and the Earth’s carrying capacity for humans is TRUE?
- The Earth’s carrying capacity for humans is hard to estimate and depends on assumptions made about standard of living, resource consumption, technological innovations, and waste generation.
- Most published estimates suggest that the Earth’s carrying for humans are unlimited thus human populations can grow indefinitely.
- Environmental constraints determine the Earth’s carrying capacity for humans. Human choices and values need not be factored into the assessment.
- The higher the standard of living, the more people the Earth can support as people with a high standard of living have more money to spend on green technology that reduces environmental impact.
What happens during the pre-industrial stage of the demographic transition?
- Birth and death rates are high.
- The death rate is low.
- Only very light industrialization.
- The birth rate is low.
Replacement level fertility is _______ children.
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