Which of the following statements best describes the effects of caffeine on the body?
• Caffeine cannot readily cross the plasma membrane into body cells, so all effects are short-lived.
• In the brain, caffeine activates receptors for adenosine and blocks the action adrenaline.
• Caffeine is considered a psychoactive drug because it changes brain function.
• Caffeine is a diuretic and can cause extreme water loss.
• Caffeine is only water-soluble, not fat-soluble, so it is less likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
If we set up an experimental design to explore the full digestion of starch to glucose, we would need to include which enzymes?
• pepsin and lipase
• trypsin and lipase
• pepsin and hydrochloric acid
• amylase and maltase
• trypsin and maltase
Which of the following statements is true?
• Aerobic respiration of glucose has five phases.
• The citric acid cycle begins and ends with pyruvate.
• Cellular respiration will eventually produce three ATP molecules.
• Aerobic respiration releases oxygen and uses carbon dioxide.
• The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate.
A student sitting in the back row opened a bottle of foul-smelling perfume and dabbed it on her wrists. One by one (beginning from the back of the room) the students began to cough due to the foul smell. This phenomena was due to
• an allergic reaction.
• molecules moving from an area of low concentration to high concentration.
• active transport.
Select the correct association.
• lipids—structural components of hair, fingernails, and claws
• proteins—have three forms: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
• carbohydrates—composed of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds
• proteins—make up the bulk of the plasma membrane of cells
• carbohydrates—provide the body with an immediate source of energy
Of the following list of ingredients in an energy drink, which is the most likely to provide a burst of energy?
• Malic acid
• Vitamin C
Which process is responsible for moving bulk cellular wastes across the cell membrane?
In which of the following is the correct monomer matched with its polymer?
• amino acid—protein
• fatty acid—carbohydrate
• fatty acid—protein
Which of the following is a function of the large intestine?
• production of amylase to break down starches
• storage of excess bile salts
• secretion of insulin
• absorption of water
• absorption of amino acids
Which of the following statements is true concerning how energy drinks work?
• Energy drinks contain vast amounts of carbohydrates and proteins that enter into cellular respiration pathways, directly providing ATP energy.
• All energy drinks contain caffeine, as it is a known stimulant that increases energy levels.
• It is the amount of food additives in energy drinks that provides the energy felt.
• Energy drinks contain numerous vitamins and minerals which are known to directly act as stimulants.
• Energy drinks contain vitamins which are known to interact with cellular respiration pathways, helping provide energy.
Which of the following is a likely physiological effect of caffeine ingestion?
• extreme increase in diuretic effects
• increased metabolic rate
• decrease in blood glucose levels
• decrease in central nervous system activity
• release of proteins into the bloodstream
Which of the following is an organic molecule?
Each enzyme has a particular substrate because enzymes
• have active sites complementary in shape to their substrates.
• increase the energy of activation.
• are named for their substrate.
• decrease the productivity of the cell.
• always require coenzymes.
How are lipids different from other categories of biological molecules?
• They are not organic.
• They do not have carbon.
• They are not seen in all living things.
• They will not combine with water.
• They are much more complex.
The principal role for sugars in living organisms is to
• create our genetic code.
• provide a source of cellular energy for work.
• form cell membranes.
• serve as a form of long-term energy storage.
• produce hormones.
An energy drink that is marketed towards athletes promises to boost endurance, decrease muscle fatigue, and promote recovery. It contains caffeine, B vitamins, taurine, malic acid, and phenylalanine. Is this claim plausible?
• No. These substances have not been shown to alter human physiology in any way.
• Yes. These substances have been shown to have benefits including increased athletic performance, increased energy, and the production of proteins in the body.
In humans, what is the sequence of fat digestion from the lumen of the small intestine to the bloodstream?
• lipids → fatty acid and glycerol (converted in epithelial cell) → bloodstream
• lipids → fatty acid and glycerol (converted in liver) → lacteal → bloodstream
• lipids → fatty acid and glycerol (converted in liver) → bloodstream
• lipids → fatty acid and glycerol (converted in epithelial cell) → lacteal → bloodstream
• lipids → fatty acid and glycerol (converted in lacteal) → bloodstream
Starch digestion begins in the _____ and protein digestion begins in the _____.
• small intestine; stomach
• stomach; large intestine
• stomach; small intestine
• mouth; stomach
• mouth; small intestine
Which of the following statements best describes ATP?
• ATP is formed when energy is released during photosynthesis.
• ADP is extremely high in potential energy.
• When ADP + P becomes ATP, the amount of energy released is enough for a biological purpose.
• ATP is comprised of a sugar, base, and three phosphate groups.
Which of the following statements is true regarding energy drinks?
• All energy drinks must contain vitamins, food additives, and stimulants, including caffeine.
• The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures that claims made by drink manufacturers are verified.
• Energy drinks are classified as food by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
• The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) heavily regulates energy drinks.
• Energy drinks claim to increase energy levels, mental awareness, and reduce muscle fatigue.
Which of the following is responsible for the storage of extra bile, used to aid in the digestion of fats?
• small intestine
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration?
• glycolysis → preparatory reaction → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
• citric acid cycle → glycolysis → electron transport chain → preparatory reaction
• citric acid cycle → electron transport → glycolysis → preparatory reaction
• glycolysis → electron transport chain → preparatory reaction
• glycolysis → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
The tagline of an energy drink states that the drink will provide a burst of energy that is long lasting, without the jitters. Which of the following would not be found in the drink?
• pantothenic acid
Cellular respiration involves all of the following except
• the release of carbon dioxide.
• the release of energy.
• the breakdown of molecules.
• breathing in and out.
• the synthesis of ATP.
Which of the following is a passive mechanism used to move materials into and out of of the cell?
• facilitated diffusion
• feedback inhibition
• active transport
Which is an example of potential energy rather than kinetic energy?
• an apple made up of energy-rich macromolecules
• a candle giving off light
• a skier at the bottom of the hill instead of the top of the hill
• a pile of leaves that have been burned
• a firefly using light flashes to attract a mate
Which of the following is an example of a B vitamin?
• malic acid
Which of the following is a function of the liver?
• produces insulin and glucagon
• filters out nitrogenous wastes
• absorbs proteins from food in the form of amino acids
• absorbs water
• detoxifies blood by filtering poisonous substances
Which of the following is not likely to be found in large quantities in an energy drink?
• folic acid
• amino acids
Which one of the following is a main function of many proteins?
• genetic coding
• energy source
• enzymatic activity
Which of the following is a true statement about proteins?
• Proteins are used to insulate the body from cold and protect it from abuse.
• Proteins are made up of amino acids bonded together.
• Proteins are used to produce ATP for the cell.
• Extra proteins are stored in the liver and brain.
• Even small changes in temperature and pH will immediately destroy a protein’s shape and function.
Hydrolysis of sucrose, a disaccharide, results in
• the release of functional groups.
• two glycerol units.
• three monosaccharides.
• two monomers.
• two nucleotides.
The relative number of mitochondria in a cell would be a general indicator of the extent of _____ occurring within that cell.
• active transport
• osmosis and diffusion
• facilitated transport
Which of the following statements is true about vitamins?
• Vitamins are nutrients that are directly metabolized through cellular respiration pathways, providing energy for the cell.
• Vitamins are enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions in cells.
• Vitamins are organic nutrients that break down to form energy for the cell.
• Vitamins are molecules that assist enzymes in chemical reactions or assist in energy-related pathways.
• Vitamins are molecules that lower the activation energy of chemical reactions, allowing them to proceed rapidly.
Which of the following statements best describe the way molecules move across a plasma membrane?
• Small, uncharged molecules pass through the plasma membrane easily.
• Water and gas molecules require “helper” proteins to move through the plasma membrane.
• Charged molecules pass through the plasma membrane easily.
• Lipid molecules do not pass through the plasma membrane easily.
• Large molecules pass through the plasma membrane easily.
Which of the following statements describes the correct flow of energy conversions through living systems?
• Chloroplasts generate chemical energy in the form of ATP molecules and mitochondria convert ATP molecules into glucose to be used for work.
• Chloroplasts produce carbon dioxide and water during photosynthesis, which in turn is used by mitochondria to generate ATP molecules.
• Mitochondria capture solar energy and convert it to oxygen. Oxygen is used by chloroplasts to generate ATP molecules.
• Mitochondria convert solar energy into the chemical energy of nutrient molecules such as glucose. Chloroplasts then burn glucose into ATP molecules during cellular respiration.
• Chloroplasts convert solar energy to the chemical energy of nutrient molecules and mitochondria convert this chemical energy into ATP molecules used for work.
The largest number of ATP molecules is produced in which phase of cellular respiration?
• Calvin cycle
• electron transport chain
• citric acid cycle
• preparation reaction
How does caffeine influence metabolic pathways?
• Because caffeine is a stimulant, it only stimulates metabolic pathways; it never blocks or inhibits them.
• Caffeine causes the brain to release hormones that result in the storage of fatty acid chains. This process generates energy.
• Caffeine stimulates the metabolic pathways that result in excess water production, causing frequent urination.
• Caffeine increases energy generated by cellular respiration pathways by increasing metabolic rates.
• Caffeine stimulates pathways that control blood glucose levels, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose.
Both starch and cellulose are made by stringing together many glucose molecules. However, while starch is easily digested by humans, cellulose is indigestible. The starch polysaccharide has bonds occurring below the sugar rings, while the bonds in cellulose alternate above the ring and below the next ring. How can you explain humans’ inability to digest cellulose?
• The acidic molecules found in stomach acid cannot act on the bonds that are above the sugar rings in cellulose.
• The enzyme that breaks down starch can only fit the specific bond configuration of bonds below the ring.
• The alternating bonds make the cellulose molecule too large and bulky to enter cells for digestion.
• Humans do not eat cellulose.
• Cellular respiration is only capable of breaking down specific bonds.
Which is a correct association of mitochondrion structure and phase of cellular respiration?
• cristae—preparatory reaction
• matrix—citric acid cycle
• matrix—electron transport chain
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